Road testing ocean artificial upwelling

Since the Paris Agreement on Climate Change that has set the limit for global temperature change to 1.5◦ or 2◦C within this century, many countries have agreed to reach a net zero emissions target in the foreseen future. As an inevitable component to achieve net zero target, carbon dioxide removal has received a lot of attention from policymakers, stakeholders and academics. Recent studies have revealed that artificial upwelling as an ocean-based CO2 removal strategy could be much more promising than previously expected. Test-ArtUp project aims to examine, in a unique transdisciplinary approach, the use of artificial upwelling for the purpose of CO2 removal with respect to its technical application and optimization, its capacity for additional CO2 uptake and long-term storage, the associated environmental risks and ecological side effects, the related economic benefits and trade-offs and the legal constraints and governance requirements. By taking a transdisciplinary approach that involves maritime engineering, ocean sciences, economics and maritime law, the project will provide a comprehensive assessment of artificial upwelling in serving those vital societal needs. In a targeted stakeholder dialogue, Test-ArtUp will provide the knowledge base for developing user-oriented management strategies for the implementation and governance of artificial upwelling for the purpose of ocean-based CO2 removal.

Project partners:

  • GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (Expertise: Biological oceanography, Maritime engineering, Biogeochemical modelling)

  • University of Applied Sciences Kiel (Expertise: Hydromechanics)

  • Institute for World Economics (Expertise: Economics)

  • Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel (Expertise: Economics)

  • University of Hamburg (Expertise: Law of the Sea)

More information about the project is available here:


Copyright: Michael Sswat (Geomar)


Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)




Prof. Dr. Marie-Catherine Riekhof

Neufeldtstraße 10
24118 Kiel